When diamonds and gold were found in South Africa in the late 1800s, the economy was transformed. Following that, a large amount of global money was invested.
The nation has grown a well-developed industrial base in the years after World War II, and it has undergone extremely volatile growth rates, including several years when it was among the highest in the world.
South Africa, on the other hand, has had persistent economic difficulties since the late 1970s, owing to its apartheid policies, which caused many countries to suspend foreign investment and enforce more harsh trade restrictions against it.
Namibia has been classified as a lower-middle-income country with a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) that is slightly higher than the average for Sub-Saharan African countries.
However, the summary is deceptive. Only one-quarter of all Namibians and one-sixth of black Namibians have decent incomes; up to two-thirds of the population lives in abject poverty with inadequate access to public services. Because of a declining productive industry, a shortage of capital stock and serious world market problems for base metals and uranium oxide, economic development remains a challenge.
Furthermore, unless foreign assistance investments quickly turn into significant real inflows and private external investment in mining, manufacturing, and fisheries occurs, the one segment of the GDP that expanded steadily in the 1980s would decrease.
The South African Reserve Bank, which is the sole issuing authority for the rand, the national currency, has a well-developed financial structure. It is in charge of monetary policy formulation and implementation, as well as managing foreign exchange trades.
There are several licensed banking institutions, many of which focus on commercial banking, as well as merchant, deposit, and investment banking, to name a few.
The Development Bank of Southern Africa, for example, is a quasi-governmental organization that promotes development programs. The banking market is dominated by private pension and provident funds, as well as more than two dozen insurance providers. The Johannesburg Stock Exchange is the centre of an active capital market.
South Africa, Africa’s second-largest economy after Nigeria, has a GDP that is far greater than that of its sub-Saharan neighbours. The Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE), which is 132 years old and has a market capitalization of more than USD1 trillion, is the biggest stock exchange in Africa.
The JSE is a comprehensive and cutting-edge exchange that offers complete electronic trading, clearing, and settlement of stocks, shares, and interest-rate securities, as well as financial, asset, and currency trading in South Africa.
On the JSE, there are approximately 350 companies listed, with industrials being the largest grouping, led by energy companies such as mines and oil companies.
The JSE, on the other hand, is facing strong headwinds. After decades with little competition, the JSE is now being tested by smaller competitors such as ZAR X, a low-cost model launched in 2016 to offer stock access to lower-income individuals.
Since then, new entrants have entered the ring, including A2X, 4AX, and the Equity Express Securities Exchange, which focuses on black economic empowerment. The market is currently focused on the newly implemented ‘twin peaks’ regulatory model, which response to weak financial sector policies and insufficient regulatory supervision.
It is intended to promote consumer trust and stimulate capital formation, much as it was in Australia, where the concept first debuted.
The majority of banking activity is handled by two commercial banks, First National Bank of Southern Africa and Standard Bank Namibia (both branches of South African parent companies). Following independence, land, infrastructure, and development banks were reorganized. In the mid-1990s, the Central Bank of Namibia introduced the Namibian dollar as an independent currency to replace the South African rand.
The Namibian Stock Exchange (NSX) currently has 50 listed companies. Namibia has the second-lowest population density of any sovereign nation, with just 2.6 million people.
The NSX was established in 1904 to help finance the country’s diamond rush. The rush was over by 1910, and the exchange was suddenly closed. The NSX did not reopen until 1992, 82 years later, with start-up funding from 36 Namibian companies.
Despite the fact that agriculture and tourism are important parts of the economy, other industries dominate the stock exchange. In reality, three industries account for half of the NSX’s listings: banking (four companies), mining (seven companies), and finance (three companies).
It is only recently that debt has been issued and listed. Namibia had virtually no public debt until 2011. In reality, the nation had one of the lowest debt-to-GDP ratios in the world, at just 16 per cent of GDP. International rating agencies downgraded the country to a sub-investment rating in 2017 due to the dramatic increase in public debt.
Namibian state-owned corporations and private businesses have floated bonds worth more than NAD33 billion (approximately £1.73 billion) on the NSX. As traditional financing sources dry up, more Namibian firms are expected to issue bonds in the immediate future. Because of the economic crisis, banks’ balance sheets and loan-to-deposit ratios have been strained, and they are less likely to lend to corporations.
The withdrawal of traditional finance provides an incentive for small businesses to raise money from their balance sheets, collateralized or government-guaranteed debt securities, or stock offerings on the local exchange.
From a small lunch party in New York City in 1937 to a vast array of 170,000 members and 157 societies in 2019, the Investment Club has grown to become the world’s largest investment organization, dedicated to leading the investment profession internationally for the ultimate good of society.
Early colonial times saw the establishment of several African exchanges. After the diamond and gold rush, South Africa led the way, followed by Zimbabwe, Egypt, and Namibia (at the time, a German colony) – all before 1905. Some businesses did not survive the commodity boom, but most are flourishing despite being significantly diversified and modernized.
Nigeria in the 1960s; Botswana, Mauritius, and Ghana in 1989; Namibia after its independence from South Africa in the 1990s.
Others, especially the East African exchanges, are relatively recent and are rapidly growing in popularity. All of these examples show how regulation, trading technologies, and fintech are allowing more market players to participate in finance and investing in a fairer, quicker, and lower-cost manner.
The African Securities Exchanges Association collaborated on the CFA Institute Research Foundation brief (ASEA).
Sanwo-Olu Slams FG for High Cost of Cooking Gas
By Modupe Gbadeyanka
**Moves to Ramp up Supply, Crash Price
Governor Babajide Sanwo-Olu of Lagos State has slammed the federal government for being behind the high cost of cooking gas in the country.
Speaking on Thursday at the commissioning of a 40 metric tons Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) refill plant in the Ikorodu area of the state, he attributed the rising price of gas to the introduction of 7.5 per cent VAT and foreign exchange (FX) crisis, a statement posted on the Facebook page of the state government disclosed.
According to him, these issues caused the spike in the price of the product, saying this was “unacceptable” in the face of the high cost of living.
However, he assured that this may soon be a thing of the past as his administration has taken a huge step to ramp up supply and make the product available to residents at cheaper rates.
The new plant in Ikorodu is operated by the state-owned energy firm, Ibile Oil and Gas Corporation (IOGC), and it is the fourth delivered by the corporation. Three other refill plants of varying capacities were built in the Amuwo Odofin, Alimosho and Iponri areas of the state.
The Governor disclosed that his administration decided to establish the plants to cut down the use of dirty fuels responsible for carbon emission and air pollution.
According to him, the energy project was initiated to key into the nation’s ambitious goal to develop the natural gas industry and encourage domestic use of safe cooking gas.
In Lagos, less than 30 per cent of households use gas for cooking. As an alternative to kerosene and charcoal, LPG is a clean-burning fuel that supports smoke-free indoor and outdoor cooking.
Mr Sanwo-Olu said the inclusion of gas into the state’s energy mix was critical to the continuous prosperity of Lagos, stressing that the project would not only transform the State into a gas economy and stimulate commercial growth but also enhance the quality of life by reducing carbon footprint in the environment.
The target, the Governor said, is to increase the supply of cooking gas in local communities, thereby raising domestic LPG usage from the current 25 per cent to about 80 per cent before the end of 2023.
He said: “The gas plant being commissioned today reflects the desire of our administration to align with the global action to reduce carbon emission and address the climate change challenge. One of the measures, which this gas plant will support, is promoting increased adoption of LGP for domestic use in Lagos.
“Our vision is to transit the State into a gas economy and ensure an energy mix that provides different fuelling options for residents with the introduction of Gas-for-Transport and Gas-to-Power projects. Expanding the domestic usage of LPG is critical to the continuous prosperity of Lagos and the attainment of our administration’s desire to transform the State into a 21st-century economy.”
Mr Sanwo-Olu said the increment in LPG price puts the nation at the risk of reversing all gains achieved from awareness of the advantages of using LPG for domestic cooking.
The Governor urged the federal government to reverse the trend in order to make the commodity affordable, while also increasing the availability of safe cooking gas in the country.
He said: “Not only are we excited with our modest intervention by Lagos in the LPG market, but it is also only when we reduce the cost of basic commodities such as cooking gas that the true dividends of democracy can be felt by the people.
“We have done a lot of advocacy for people to appreciate the benefit that comes with the use of gas for domestic cooking, such as reduction in carbon footprint, and improved quality of life. If we have made this great effort, the least the government can do is not to make the commodity unaffordable for the populace.”
The Commissioner for Energy and Mineral Resources, Mr Olalere Odusote, said the plant was built with the highest safety standards, noting that the siting of the facility was deliberate to serve a large number of the populace.
He said the state had the plan to expand the gas facility to 20 units which would be spread across all divisions.
Managing Director of IOGC, Ms Doyin Akinyanju, said the gas plants developed by the corporation had the capacity to supply 20,000 homes within the radius of operation, adding that jobs were created for young people in the supply chain through the use of purpose-built vehicles for door-to-door delivery in neighbourhoods.
She said: “Nigeria has an abundant gas deposit that needs to be rapidly developed. Lagos also is blessed with two known offshore fields – Aje and Ogo – in Badagry with large gas deposits. IOGC is taking steps to develop a bulk offtake facility that will ensure gas security in Lagos, as well as provide a competitive pricing advantage.
“We will continue our sensitisation and awareness campaign in the neighbourhoods where we are located to take Lagosians away from the use of dirty fuels like firewood, charcoal, kerosene to Gas for cooking. Today, we start a new journey with cooking gas by creating a market that will make it safely accessible.”
Our Post-paid Customers Owe N115bn—JED Cries Out
By Adedapo Adesanya
The Jos Electricity Distribution Company (JED) has said that post-paid customers across its franchise states are indebted to the company to the tune of N115 billion.
This was disclosed by the Managing Director of the company, Mr Hashim Bakori, who explained that the debt owed was different from the cost of energy losses as a result of energy theft.
He said this was discovered after 16 months of hard work after resuming office with his team as the new management of JED.
Mr Bakori disclosed this in Jos during the launch of the company’s 5-years Corporate Strategic Plan to kick start a new goal to be achieved by the organisation.
‘If nothing is done to bridge the gap, a lot will go wrong and that is why we are launching the Corporate Strategic Plan and by the time we are done, people will start seeing the improvement of energy supply across our franchise states.
“We have consulted reputable companies in the world to come and partner with us in moving the company forward.
“From today, you will see a very new Jos DisCo,” he said.
Mr Bakori, however, pointed out that despite the several efforts put in by the new management of JED, vandals and energy thieves still remain a challenge to the company.
“Despite these efforts, the company is currently bedevilled by some man-made challenges. These challenges range from vandalism and theft of our installations, energy theft to customers huge indebtedness to the company.
“In 2021 alone, vandals and thieves have torched about 200 distribution transformers, armoured cables, copper earth wires, transformer oil, feeder pillar copper bars, several spans of aluminium conductors, line insulators etc,” he said.
Headquartered in Jos, Plateau State, the company operates one of the longest distribution networks in the country. It caters to over 400,000 customers in the franchise regions of Plateau, Gombe, Bauchi and Benue States.
NUPENG Extends Planned Nationwide Strike by One Week
By Adedapo Adesanya
The Nigeria Union of Petroleum and Natural Gas Workers (NUPENG) has extended the 14-day ultimatum earlier given to the federal government by one week.
This was disclosed in a statement issued by the union’s General Secretary, Mr Afolabi Olawale, in Lagos.
He said that in spite of the various interventions and engagements with government agencies and institutions, issues concerning the welfare of members and unfair labour practices by some oil majors had yet to be fully resolved.
Business Post had reported that NUPENG issued the 14-day ultimatum on November 15, threatening to embark on a nationwide strike due to what it called non-implementation of an agreement earlier reached with the government.
The issues at stake include non-payment of workers’ salaries and title benefits, among others.
In the latest statement, Mr Olawale said, “Leadership of the union is still exercising further patience and restraint to give the ongoing discussions the chances of resolving these issues once and for all.”
“The decision of the union to give another seven-day ultimatum should not be misconstrued as a sign of capitulation or weakness.
“Rather, it is a demonstration of our resolve not to inflict unnecessary pains on Nigerians or create any form of artificial scarcity of petroleum products,” he said.
The NUPENG general secretary urged the government and all other concerned entities to take advantage of the extension to do the needful.
“It is our hope that government does the needful and save the nation the pains and losses our industrial action will bring,” he said.
Oil majors had recently come under renewed scrutiny from many groups for their role in the country with issues ranging from employees welfare to oil spills to taxation.
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