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Russia Assures Mozambique More Economic Cooperation

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Mikhail Bogdanov and Carlos do Rosario Economic Cooperation

By Kester Kenn Klomegah

Russia is ready to support Mozambique in the fight against terrorism through cooperation in the field of intelligence, and further promises strengthening cooperation in various economic sectors, Russian Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs Mikhail Bogdanov said at the end of a meeting with Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho do Rosário in Maputo.

Bogdanov, who is also Russia’s Special Presidential Representative for the Middle East and Africa, defended the importance of African countries, including Mozambique, launching initiatives on their own real needs for combating the phenomenon in international forums, especially at the level of the United Nations.

In the context of anti-terrorist cooperation between Moscow and the African continent, the Russian diplomat said it was important for Africans to help the world understand their efforts in this fight. Russia and Mozambique have consistently maintained that all problems, conflicts and crises, unfortunately, still remain on this continent, and should be resolved based on the approaches of Africans themselves, and of course with moral, political and material support from the UN and the UN Security Council.

Bogdanov considered the situation in Cabo Delgado a serious issue, which is why his country was offering to help address it. It is worth noting that during an earlier high-level visit to Maputo by Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov, it was announced that Russia would increase counter-terrorism cooperation with Mozambique. Since then, no reports have been made available publicly about concrete contributions in fighting terrorism in Mozambique.

Mozambique has been grappling with an insurgency in its northernmost province of Cabo Delgado since 2017, but currently improving after the deployment of a joint military force with the primary responsibility of ensuring peace and stability, and restoring normalcy in Mozambique.

Bogdanov also met Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Verónica Macamo Dhlovo, with terrorism again dominating the conversation between the two. Themes related to bilateral cooperation in the areas of economy and trade, the humanitarian sphere and others of mutual interest were discussed. During tropical cyclone Idai in April 2019, Russia helped by sending humanitarian supplies to Zimbabwe, Malawi and Mozambique.

Mikhail Bogdanov said that Russia places special emphasis on relations with countries on the African continent, highlighted the holding, in October 2019, of the first Russia-Africa Summit, at which Mozambique was represented by President Filipe Nyusi.

“Preparations are now underway for the second [Russia-Africa] summit, which will take place in 2022, and we would be grateful if Mozambique were represented at the highest possible level,” Bogdanov said.

Russia has had economic cooperation with Mozambique. There is an increasing interest of the Russian business community in building partnerships with Mozambique, which matches Maputo’s intention to attract Russian investment and technical assistance. Until recently, reports on the “hidden debts” scandal amounted to a $2 billion loan scam involving two banks, Credit Suisse and Russia’s VTB bank. The secrecy and corruption surrounding the loans dealt devastating blows to Mozambique’s credibility and reputation.

It was the Wall Street Journal that first revealed the hidden debt in April 2016. By U.S. court ruling, the Russian bank VTB agreed to pay more than US$6 million to settle the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

In 2015, Rosneft was awarded three licenses to extract natural gas near the Rovuma basin, in partnership with Exxon Mobil. The plan is to create a consortium with the participation of a Mozambican company, Rosneft and ExxonMobil to develop offshore hydrocarbon fields near Mozambique. Besides that, Inter RAO-Export and EdM (Mozambique) also signed a memorandum of understanding in power generation.

Back in August 2019, when President of Mozambique Filipe Nyusi held talks with Russian President Vladimir Putin, both agreed on deepening economic cooperation especially in energy, oil and gas exploration, and the development of Russian-Mozambican cooperation in various other mutually viable sectors. A series of bilateral agreements to boost that expected cooperation were signed between the two countries.

With an approximate population of 30 million, Mozambique is endowed with rich and extensive natural resources but remains one of the poorest and most underdeveloped countries in the world.

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Migrating to Canada from Nigeria – Provincial Nominee Programs

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Migrating to Canada from Nigeria

There continues to be a high demand for high-skilled immigrants in many developed countries worldwide, and Canada isn’t an exception. The country’s skilled immigration system recognizes that immigrants can be instrumental in addressing labour market needs and economic growth, especially when they have in-demand skills, experience, and education. Hence, the Provincial Nominee Program (PNP) is an important component of Canada’s economic immigration system.

This provincial program creates a platform for the federal and provincial governments to work together to create industrial growth in Canada. The initiative makes it easier for qualified, skilled foreigners to become permanent residents. Provinces can nominate skilled immigrants who have been invited to apply for PR through Express Entry or the paper-based process.

Who Can Apply for PNP?

Although the nominee program is exclusive to workers, not all applicants in the job market are eligible. Some workers may be eligible, depending on their occupation. If an applicant holds a high human capital that is in demand in the province, the individual can apply for nomination in any of the available PNP immigration programs best suited.

Applicants must apply in the provinces they intend to live in. For example, a foreign senior developer who receives a “notification of interest” from Alberta is not qualified to apply under British Columbia’s PNP, especially when the individual has no interest in becoming a long-term resident there. Using the same scenario, the software engineer may not be considered for this program if there’s no intention to become a permanent resident in Canada.

Breaking Down the PNP Framework

As previously highlighted, there are two approaches to the PNP application process. The procedure entails undergoing some background checks, like police clearance and medical examinations for the province of application. The applicant must clear them successfully, as they make up part of the overall assessment. For those who consider the standard process, the requirements share some similarities with its counterpart.

To begin with, the applicants must meet the eligibility requirements for the province; likewise the Express Entry stream. Their skills must match one of the listed programs. That way, the province can invite such persons to apply. If nominated, they can submit the application to the IRCC. This approach has a longer wait time, compared to the second option.

Generally, the Express Entry stream is faster and more straightforward than the standard process. The skilled immigrant visits the province’s website to apply for nomination. Whereby the province finds the applicant an ideal fit for its labour market needs, it proceeds to nominate the professional, earning the individual 600 CRS extra. The next step would be to create an Express Entry account and proceed to apply for permanent residence.

Another option would be to flip the process around. This time, the Express Entry account creation comes first, which the professional notifies the province of. This is where the “notification of interest” comes into play. With this approach, there is direct communication between the candidate and the province officials in charge of the application. The former can then apply to the latter’s Express Entry stream and proceed to send the PR application to the IRCC.

Is Permanent Residence Available to Families of PNP-Nominated Immigrants?

The Provincial Nominee Program is one of the selected initiatives that encourage families to be united. Under this program, a spouse or child can accompany the foreign-born applicant when they make Canada their permanent residence. Those who move to Canada are eligible to become permanent residents as well. Plus, it extends to the children of the dependent children.

What Are Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) Points?

When seeking permanent residence, various prerequisites must be met. Still, the Comprehensive Ranking System majorly determines whether a candidate is eligible for PR status. Points are allocated depending on the following:

  • Language proficiency
  • Academic background
  • Work experience
  • Age
  • Province ties

Some are given points for obtaining professional degrees, like the Master of Business Administration (MBA) or other specializations that require significant academic efforts. The same is true for a foreign skilled worker, such as a financial advisor, who is fluent in the required language (often English or French). When a province nominates this skilled professional, additional CRS points are added to the person’s profile.

These points combined with those from other considerable aspects of the program, help the IRCC officials determine if the financial advisor qualifies for permanent residence.

How Can Applicants Improve Their Chances of Being Nominated?

Given a large number of skilled foreigners in the Express Entry pool, the possibility of being nominated quickly may be dicey. As such, applicants are advised to build a strong profile. Those who end up securing a job or enrolling in an academic program in Canada increase their CRS points and thus, their chances of getting a provincial nomination for PR application.

For example, an IT project manager seeking a PNP nomination from New Brunswick can boost his or her profile by acquiring a Master’s degree from a Canadian university. This tech professional can boost the chances of being nominated for PR by securing an IT-related role, such as computer programming at a New Brunswick-based tech firm.

The CRS points for such an expert would be higher than someone in the same field who has no connection to the province. In other words, the province will be more inclined to nominate the former than the latter. In the end, it is not simply about being skilled, as many highly skilled individuals are in Canada seeking permanent residence; it is about being the best fit for a province’s labour needs.

PNP Application Language Requirements

The language requirements for any of the streams in the PNP can vary. In general, the provinces nominate applicants who can integrate successfully into Canada. To this effect, applicants must be fluent in either English or French, depending on the stream. They’ll need to demonstrate their competence by taking any of the exams below:

  • IELTS
  • CELPIP
  • TCF Canada
  • TEF Canada

The first two tests are English-based, whereas the last two are used to measure foreigners’ French language skills. They evaluate an applicant’s capability to converse, write, and listen in the language.

Conclusion

Canada’s Provincial Nominee Program is not difficult to understand. With proper research and planning, foreign-born professionals can apply, get selected, and become part of the country’s permanent population. There’s so much more to Canada than the majestic snow-capped mountains and lakes. Those looking for a career upgrade can consider moving to Canada, particularly if they are competent and willing to settle down.

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World Bank Gives $300m Budget Support to Mozambique

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Mozambique

By Kestér Kenn Klomegâh

By June, the World Bank plans to provide $300 million to support the national budget of the Republic of Mozambique, according to the World Bank country director for Mozambique, Idah Pswarayi-Riddihough.

After a meeting with the Mozambican Minister of Economy and Finance, Max Tonela, the global lender’s country director said that priority sectors would include health, education, energy and agriculture. The budget support proposal will be presented to the World Bank board by June.

“We are talking about the first instalment of 300 million dollars, which we hope to take to our administration for approval by 30 June this year. Then we can consider other windows of financing for 2023 and 2024”, said Pswarayi-Riddihough.

International organizations and financial institutions have returned after the Government of Mozambique started to undertake necessary reforms.

In April, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) also returned with a set of new funded programmes to Mozambique, six years after the lender halted its previous deals in the wake of a financial scandal involving three fraudulent security-linked companies, and two banks – Credit Suisse and VTB of Russia, on the basis of illicit loan guarantees issued by the government under former President Armando Guebuza.

Popularly referred to as the “Hidden Debts” scandal involving $2.7 billion (€2.3 million), the financial scandal happened in 2013, and the case has since left an image of a corrupt country and brought high-level government officials to testify as witnesses in the controversial judicial trial. It prompted 14 foreign donors, including IMF, to cut off aid and simultaneously sparked a currency collapse and debt crisis.

The IMF said in a report that its funds would be used to support sustainable, inclusive economic growth and long-term macroeconomic stability, in the world’s third poorest country measured by gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. The programmes will address transparency in debt management and the natural resource sector.

Unlike many of Mozambique’s other partners, the World Bank did not cut off financial assistance entirely after the scandal of Mozambique’s “Hidden Debts” became public knowledge in April 2016. World Bank aid continued, but in relatively small amounts, project by project.

Now the bank seems prepared to return to the modality of direct budget support. Pswarayi-Riddihough said that the improvement in good governance supposedly recorded in recent years contributed to the resumption of World Bank support. She claimed that this was an important step toward regaining the trust of the country’s partners.

Major work had been undertaken around questions of transparency and good governance, she alleged – but admitted that Mozambican civil society is continuing to demand greater advances in these areas. Mozambique’s new programme with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), she added, could give a strong signal to the market. Indeed, it will send a strong signal to all of Mozambique’s partners.

The agreement between Mozambique and the IMF, approved by the IMF Executive Board, will make $456 million available to the country. An amount of $91 million will become available immediately. At the time, Tonela said the agreement with the IMF marked the start of a new phase, leading to the resumption of sustainable growth of the Mozambican economy.

With an approximate population of 30 million, Mozambique is endowed with rich and extensive natural resources but remains one of the poorest and most underdeveloped countries in the world. It is a member of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC).

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Adesina Seeks US Support to Fund $1.5bn Africa Food Plan

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AFDB Africa Food Plan

By Adedapo Adesanya

The President of the African Development Bank (AfDB) Group, Mr Akinwumi Adesina, has appealed to the United States to back the institution’s $1.5 billion emergency food production plan which seeks to avert a looming food crisis in Africa caused by Russia’s war in Ukraine.

Mr Adesina was part of a team that testified about global food insecurity and persisting impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic before the US Senate subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations and Related Programs.

Senators Chris Coons (Delaware), Lyndsey Graham (South Carolina), Dick Durbin (Illinois), Chris Van Hollen (Maryland) and Roy Blunt (Missouri) also participated in the hearing.

Senator Coons, Chair of the Senate subcommittee, stressed that the US should move fast and provide sufficient funding, saying, “We should be concerned and even alarmed about the widening food security crisis that this war is causing for hundreds of millions far beyond Eastern Europe.”

On his part, Senator Graham expressed support for the establishment of a global fund for food security.

Speaking live via videoconference from Accra, Ghana, Mr Adesina said the proposed Africa Emergency Food Production Plan would result in the rapid production of 38 million tons of food across Africa over the next two years.

“The African Development Bank, with your support, is prepared to meet this new challenge and others head-on,” he said.

He explained that the plan is anchored on the provision of certified seeds of climate-adapted varieties to 20 million African farmers and with the disruption of food supplies arising from the Russia-Ukraine war, Africa faces a shortage of at least 30 million metric tons of food, especially wheat, maize, and soybeans imported from the two countries.

Speaking further, the AfDB chief said the lender would invest $1.3 billion in the plan’s implementation and called on the US to make up the funding balance.

“With US support to reduce the $200 million financing gap – we can ensure the Africa Emergency Food Production Plan’s success,” he said.

The Africa Emergency Food Production Plan is currently before the bank’s Board of Directors for approval.

Also providing testimony were Mr David Beasley, Executive Director of the World Food Programme and Ms Tjada D’Oyen McKenna, Chief Executive Officer of non-governmental organization Mercy Corps.

Ms McKenna said, “A perfect storm is leading to heightened global food insecurity, worse, much worse than the previous food crises over the past decade.” She cited the Covid-19 pandemic and climate change as factors sharpening the current food insecurity.

Mr Beasley said food insecurity had already begun to rise sharply before the war. He said 135 million people were acutely food-insecure before the onset of the pandemic. “COVID comes along and that number went from 135 million to 276 million people marching toward starvation.”

Mr Adesina, then, emphasized that the African Development Bank’s food production plan would foster the production of nutritious food rather than simply calories.

“One of the things we will be supporting through this emergency food production plan is bio-fortified foods. Sorghum fortified with iron. Nutritional supplementation is important,” he said

The bank’s president also said the AfDB was setting up meetings with international fertilizer companies to discuss ways to ensure that African farmers continued to have access to such inputs.

“If we don’t solve the fertilizer problem, we cannot solve the food problem.

According to him, the Africa Emergency Food Production Plan would have a long-term impact on Africa’s food productivity.

The initiative will “drive the structural changes in agriculture, to unleash the full potential of Africa to become a breadbasket to the world.”

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